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1.4.15 more

- file perusal filter for crt viewing
more [-dlfpcsu] [-num] [+/ pattern] [+ linenum] [file ...]

More is a filter for paging through text one screenful at a time. This version is especially primitive. Users should realize that less(1) provides more(1) emulation and extensive enhancements.

Command line options are described below. Options are also taken from the environment variable MORE (make sure to precede them with a dash (``-'')) but command line options will override them.

This option specifies an integer which is the screen size (in lines).
more will prompt the user with the message "[Press space to continue,
to quit.]" and will display "[Press 'h' for instructions.]" instead of ringing the bell when an illegal key is pressed.
more usually treats L (form feed) as a special character, and will pause after any line that contains a form feed. The -l option will prevent this behavior.
Causes more to count logical, rather than screen lines (i.e., long lines are not folded).
Do not scroll. Instead, clear the whole screen and then display the text.
Do not scroll. Instead, paint each screen from the top, clearing the remainder of each line as it is displayed.
Squeeze multiple blank lines into one.
Suppress underlining.
The +/ option specifies a string that will be searched for before each file is displayed.
Start at line number num.
Interactive commands for more are based on vi(1). Some commands may be preceded by a decimal number, called k in the descriptions below. In the following descriptions, X means control-X. h or ? Help: display a summary of these commands. If you forget all the other commands, remember this one.

Display next k lines of text. Defaults to current screen size.
Display next k lines of text. Defaults to current screen size.
becomes new default.
Display next k lines of text. Defaults to 1. Argument becomes new default.
d or D
Scroll k lines. Default is current scroll size, initially 11.
becomes new default.
Skip forward k lines of text. Defaults to 1.
Skip forward k screenfuls of text. Defaults to 1.
or B Skip backwards k screenfuls of text. Defaults to 1.
Go to place where previous search started.
Display current line number.
Search for kth occurrence of regular expression. Defaults to 1.
Search for kth occurrence of last r.e. Defaults to 1.
or :!<cmd> Execute <cmd> in a subshell
Start up /usr/bin/vi at current line
Redraw screen
Go to kth next file. Defaults to 1.
Go to kth previous file. Defaults to 1.
Display current file name and line number
Repeat previous command
More utilizes the following environment variables, if they exist:

This variable may be set with favored options to more.
Current shell in use (normally set by the shell at login time).
Specifies terminal type, used by more to get the terminal characteristics necessary to manipulate the screen.
vi(1) less(1)

Eric Shienbrood, UC Berkeley Modified by Geoff Peck, UCB to add underlining, single spacing Modified by John Foderaro, UCB to add -c and MORE environment variable

The more command appeared in 3.0BSD. This man page documents more version 5 .19 (Berkeley 6/29/88), which is currently in use in the Linux community. Documentation was produced using several other versions of the man page, and extensive inspection of the source code.

- mount a file system
mount [-hV]

mount -a [-fFnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-O optlist]

mount [-fnrsvw] [-o options [,...]] device | dir

mount [-fnrsvw] [-t vfstype] [-o options] device dir

All files accessible in a Unix system are arranged in one big tree, the file hierarchy, rooted at /. These files can be spread out over several devices. The mount command serves to attach the file system found on some device to the big file tree. Conversely, the umount(8) command will detach it again.

The standard form of the mount command, is mount -t type device dir This tells the kernel to attach the file system found on device (which is of type type) at the directory dir. The previous contents (if any) and owner and mode of dir become invisible, and as long as this file system remains mounted, the pathname dir refers to the root of the file system on device.

Three forms of invocation do not actually mount anything: mount -h prints a help message; mount -V prints a version string; and just mount [-t type] lists all mounted file systems (of type type) - see below.

The proc file system is not associated with a special device, and when mounting it, an arbitrary keyword, such as proc can be used instead of a device specification. (The customary choice none is less fortunate: the error message `none busy' from umount can be confusing.)

Most devices are indicated by a file name (of a block special device), like /dev/sda1, but there are other possibilities. For example, in the case of an NFS mount, device may look like

The file /etc/fstab (see fstab(5)), may contain lines describing what devices are usually mounted where, using which options. This file is used in three ways:

Thus, given a line

/dev/cdrom /cd iso9660 ro,user,noauto,unhide
any user can mount the iso9660 file system found on his CDROM using the command

mount /dev/cdrom

mount /cd
For more details, see fstab(5).

The programs mount and umount maintain a list of currently mounted file systems in the file /etc/mtab. If no arguments are given to mount, this list is printed. When the proc filesystem is mounted (say at /proc), the files /etc/mtab and /proc/mounts have very similar contents. The former has somewhat more information, such as the mount options used, but is not necessarily up-to-date (cf. the -n option below). It is possible to replace /etc/mtab by a symbolic link to /proc/mounts, but some information is lost that way, and in particular working with the loop device will be less convenient.

The full set of options used by an invocation of mount is determined by first extracting the options for the file system from the fstab table, then applying any options specified by the -o argument, and finally applying a -r or -w option, when present.

Options available for the mount command:

Output version.
Print a help message.
Verbose mode.
Mount all filesystems (of the given types) mentioned in fstab.
(Used in conjunction with -a.) Fork off a new incarnation of mount for each device. This will do the mounts on different devices or different NFS servers in parallel. This has the advantage that it is faster; also NFS timeouts go in parallel. A disadvantage is that the mounts are done in undefined order. Thus, you cannot use this option if you want to mount both /usr and /usr/spool.
Causes everything to be done except for the actual system call; if it's not obvious, this ``fakes'' mounting the file system. This option is useful in conjunction with the -v flag to determine what the mount command is trying to do. It can also be used to add entries for devices that were mounted ear- lier with the -n option.
Mount without writing in /etc/mtab. This is necessary for example when /etc is on a read-only file system.
Tolerate sloppy mount options rather than failing. This will ignore mount options not supported by a filesystem type. Not all filesystems support this option. This option exists for support of the Linux autofs-based automounter.
Mount the file system read-only. A synonym is -o ro.
Mount the file system read/write. This is the default. A synonym is -o rw.
vfstype The argument following the -t is used to indicate the file system type. The file system types which are currently supported are listed in linux/fs/filesystems.c: minix, ext, ext2, xiafs, hpfs, msdos, umsdos, vfat, proc, nfs, iso9660, smbfs, ncpfs, affs, ufs, romfs, sysv, xenix, coher- ent.
Note that the last three are equivalent and that xenix and coherent will be removed at some point in the future - use sysv instead.
Since kernel version 2.1.21 the types ext and xiafs do not exist anymore.
The type iso9660 is the default.
If no -t option is given, or if the auto type is specified, the superblock is probed for the filesystem type (minix, ext, ext2, xiafs, iso9660, romfs are supported). If this probe fails and /proc/filesystems exists, then all of the filesystems listed there will be tried, except for those that are labeled "nodev" (e.g., proc and nfs).
Note that the auto type may be useful for user- mounted floppies.
Warning: the probing uses a heuristic (the presence of appropriate `magic'), and could recognize the wrong filesystem type.
More than one type may be specified in a comma separated list. The list of file system types can be prefixed with no to specify the file system types on which no action should be taken. (This can be meaningful with the -a option.)
For example, the command:
mount -a -t nomsdos,ext
mounts all file systems except those of type msdos and ext.

Options are specified with a -o flag followed by a comma separated string of options. Some of these options are only useful when they appear in the /etc/fstab file. The following options apply to any file system that is being mounted:
The following options apply only to certain file systems. We sort them by file system. They all follow the -o flag.

Mount options for affs
uid=value and gid=value
Set the owner and group of the root of the file system (default: uid=gid=0, but with option uid or gid without specified value, the uid and gid of the current process are taken).
setuid=value and setgid=value
Set the owner and group of all files.
Set the mode of all files to value & 0777 disregarding the original permissions. Add search permission to directories that have read permission. The value is given in octal.
Do not allow any changes to the protection bits on the file system.
Set uid and gid of the root of the file system to the uid and gid of the mount point upon the first sync or umount, and then clear this option. Strange...
Print an informational message for each successful mount.
Prefix used before volume name, when following a link.
Prefix (of length at most 30) used before '/' when following a symbolic link.
(Default: 2.) Number of unused blocks at the start of the device.
Give explicitly the location of the root block.
Give blocksize. Allowed values are 512, 1024, 2048, 4096.
/ noquota / quota / usrquota These options are accepted but ignored.
Mount options for coherent
Mount options for ext
None. Note that the `ext' file system is obsolete. Don't use it. Since Linux version 2.1.21 extfs is no longer part of the kernel source.

Mount options for ext2
The `ext2' file system is the standard Linux file system. Due to a kernel bug, it may be mounted with random mount options (fixed in Linux 2.0.4).

/ minixdf Set the behavior for the statfs system call. The minixdf behaviour is to return in the f_blocks field the total number of blocks of the file system, while the bsddf behaviour (which is the default) is to subtract the overhead blocks used by the ext2 file system and not available for file storage. Thus
% mount /k -o minixdf; df /k; umount /k

Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Available Capacity Mounted on

/dev/sda6 2630655 86954 2412169 3

% /k

% mount /k -o bsddf; df /k; umount /k

Filesystem 1024-blocks Used Available Capacity Mounted on

/dev/sda6 2543714 13 2412169 0

% /k
(Note that this example shows that one can add command line options to the options given in /etc/fstab.)

check check=normal check=strict
Set checking level. When at least one of these options is set (and check=normal is set by default) the inodes and blocks bitmaps are checked upon mount (which can take half a minute or so on a big disk). With strict checking, block deallocation checks that the block to free is in the data zone.
check=none / nocheck
No checking is done.
Print debugging info upon each (re)mount.
errors=continue / errors=remount-ro / errors=panic
Define the behavior when an error is encountered. (Either ignore errors and just mark the file system erroneous and continue, or remount the file system read-only, or panic and halt the system.) The default is set in the filesystem superblock, and can be changed using tune2fs(8).
grpid or bsdgroups / nogrpid or sysvgroups
These options define what group id a newly created file gets. When grpid is set, it takes the group id of the directory in which it is created; other- wise (the default) it takes the fsgid of the cur- rent process, unless the directory has the setgid bit set, in which case it takes the gid from the parent directory, and also gets the setgid bit set if it is a directory itself.
resgid=n and resuid=n
The ext2 file system reserves a certain percentage of the available space (by default 5%, see mke2fs(8) and tune2fs(8)). These options determine who can use the reserved blocks. (Roughly: whoever has the specified uid, or belongs to the specified group.)
Instead of block 1, use block n as superblock. This could be useful when the filesystem has been dam- aged. Usually, copies of the superblock are found every 8192 blocks: in block 1, 8193, 16385, ... (Thus, one gets hundreds or even thousands of copies of the superblock on a big filesystem. I do not know of options to mke2fs that would cause fewer copies to be written.)
grpquota / noquota / quota / usrquota
These options are accepted but ignored.
Mount options for fat
(Note: fat is not a separate filesystem, but a common part of the msdos, umsdos and vfat filesystems.)

blocksize=512 / blocksize=1024
Set blocksize (default 512).
uid=value and gid=value
Set the owner and group of all files. (Default: the uid and gid of the current process.)
Set the umask (the bitmask of the permissions that are not present). The default is the umask of the current process. The value is given in octal.
Three different levels of pickyness can be chosen:
conv=b[inary] conv=t[ext] / conv=a[uto]
The fat file system can perform CRLF<->NL (MS-DOS text format to UNIX text format) conversion in the kernel. The following conversion modes are available:
Mount options for hpfs
uid=value and gid=value
Set the owner and group of all files. (Default: the uid and gid of the current process.)
Set the umask (the bitmask of the permissions that are not present). The default is the umask of the current process. The value is given in octal.
case=lower / case=asis
Convert all files names to lower case, or leave them. (Default: case=lower.)
conv=binary / conv=text / conv=auto
For conv=text, delete some random CRs (in particular, all followed by NL) when reading a file. For conv=auto, choose more or less at random between conv=binary and conv=text. For conv=binary, just read what is in the file. This is the default.
Do not abort mounting when certain consistency checks fail.
Mount options for iso9660
iso9660 filenames appear in a 8.3 format (i.e., DOS-like restrictions on filename length), and in addition all characters are in upper case. Also there is no field for file ownership, protection, number of links, provision for block/character devices, etc.
Rock Ridge
is an extension to iso9660 that provides all of these unix like features. Basically there are extensions to each directory record that supply all of the additional information, and when Rock Ridge is in use, the filesystem is indistinguishable from a normal UNIX file system (except that it is read-only, of course).
Disable the use of Rock Ridge extensions, even if available. Cf. map.
check=r[elaxed] / check=s[trict]
With check=relaxed, a filename is first converted to lower case before doing the lookup. This is probably only meaningful together with norock and map=normal. (Default: check=strict.)
uid=value and gid=value
Give all files in the file system the indicated user or group id, possibly overriding the information found in the Rock Ridge extensions. (Default: uid=0,gid=0.)
map=n[ormal] / map=o[ff]
For non-Rock Ridge volumes, normal name translation maps upper to lower case ASCII, drops a trailing `;1', and converts `;' to `.'. With map=off no name translation is done. See norock. (Default: map=normal.)
For non-Rock Ridge volumes, give all files the indicated mode. (Default: read permission for everybody.) Since Linux 2.1.37 one no longer needs to specify the mode in decimal. (Octal is indicated by a leading 0.)
Also show hidden and associated files.
Set the block size to the indicated value. (Default: block=1024.)
conv=a[uto] / conv=b[inary] / conv=m[text] / conv=t[ext]
(Default: conv=binary.) Since Linux 1.3.54 this option has no effect anymore. (And non-binary settings used to be very dangerous, often leading to silent data corruption.)
If the high byte of the file length contains other garbage, set this mount option to ignore the high order bits of the file length. This implies that a file cannot be larger than 16MB. The `cruft' option is set automatically if the entire CDROM has a weird size (negative, or more than 800MB). It is also set when volume sequence numbers other than 0 or 1 are seen.
Mount options for minix
Mount options for msdos
See mount options for fat. If the msdos file system detects an inconsistency, it reports an error and sets the file system read-only. The file system can be made write- able again by remounting it.

Mount options for ncp
Just like nfs, the ncp implementation expects a binary argument (a struct ncp_mount_data) to the mount system call. This argument is constructed by ncpmount(8) and the current version of mount (2.6h) does not know anything about ncp.

Mount options for nfs
Instead of a textual option string, parsed by the kernel, the nfs file system expects a binary argument of type struct nfs_mount_data. The program mount itself parses the following options of the form `tag=value', and puts them in the structure mentioned:

rsize=n, wsize=n, timeo=n, retrans=n, acregmin=n, acregmax=n, acdirmin=n,
acdirmax=n, actimeo=n, retry=n, port=n, mountport=n, mounthost=name,
mountprog=n, mountvers=n, nfsprog=n, nfsvers=n, namlen=n.
The option addr=n is accepted but ignored. Also the following Boolean options, possibly preceded by no are recognized: bg, fg, soft, hard, intr, posix, cto, ac, tcp, udp, lock. For details, see nfs(5). Especially useful options include
This will make your nfs connection much faster than with the default buffer size of 1024.
The program accessing a file on a NFS mounted file system will hang when the server crashes. The process cannot be interrupted or killed unless you also specify intr. When the NFS server is back online the program will continue undisturbed from where it was.
This is probably what you want.
This option allows the kernel to time out if the nfs server is not responding for some time. The time can be specified with timeo=time. This option might be useful if your nfs server sometimes doesn't respond or will be rebooted while some process tries to get a file from the server. Usually it just causes lots of trouble.
Do not use locking. Do not start lockd.
Mount options for proc
uid=value and gid=value
These options are recognized, but have no effect as far as I can see.
Mount options for romfs

Mount options for smbfs
Just like nfs, the smb implementation expects a binary argument (a struct smb_mount_data) to the mount system call. This argument is constructed by smbmount(8) and the current version of mount (2.6c) does not know anything about smb.

Mount options for sysv

Mount options for ufs

Mount options for umsdos
See mount options for msdos. The dotsOK option is explicitly killed by umsdos.

Mount options for vfat
First of all, the mount options for fat are recognized. The dotsOK option is explicitly killed by vfat. Further- more, there are uni_xlate Translate unhandled Unicode characters to special escaped sequences. This lets you backup and restore filenames that are created with any Unicode characters. Without this option, a '?' is used when no translation is possible. The escape character is ':' because it is otherwise illegal on the vfat filesystem. The escape sequence that gets used, where u is the unicode character, is: ':', (u & 0x3f), ((u>>6) & 0x3f), (u>>12).

Allow two files with names that only differ in case.
First try to make a short name without sequence number, before trying namenum.ext.
Mount options for xenix

Mount options for xiafs
None. Although nothing is wrong with xiafs, it is not used much, and is not maintained. Probably one shouldn't use it. Since Linux version 2.1.21 xiafs is no longer part of the kernel source.

One further possible type is a mount via the loop device. For example, the command

mount /tmp/fdimage /mnt -t msdos -o loop=/dev/loop3,blocksize=1024
will set up the loop device /dev/loop3 to correspond to the file /tmp/fdimage, and then mount this device on /mnt. This type of mount knows about three options, namely loop, offset and encryption, that are really options to losetup(8). If no explicit loop device is mentioned (but just an option `-o loop' is given), then mount will try to find some unused loop device and use that.

Mount a DOS floppy disk to /mnt/floppy

$ mount -t msdos /dev/fd0 /mnt/floppy

Mount a cd to /mnt/cdrom

$ mount -t iso9660 /dev/cdrom /mnt/cdrom

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